- A water pump that circulates the water
- An air pump that vigorously aerates the water
- A submersible water heater
- If you choose a submersible heater, use only a model with a thermostat that will turn the heater off when the water heats up sufficiently. They cost more but are much cheaper and far safer to operate. Make sure you plug your heater into a grounded outdoor plug with a
- ground fault interrupter to avoid electric shock
- Avoid metal birdbath components to prevent wet feathers and toes from freezing to them.
(These excerpts were obtained from The Backyard Bird Watcher's Answer Guide published by Bird Watcher's Digest. You can order this and many other great booklets on our website at: www.identiflyer.com